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Black Bryony flowers

Black Bryony berries

Black Bryony (Tamus communis)

Flowers: Tiny lime-green 6-petalled flowers from May to July. Male flowers are in pairs in long racemes along the twining stems and female flowers in bunches at the junction of a pair of leaves.

Seeds: develop into green berries which ripen to red from September to Novmber.

Leaves: Glossy, ace of spade shaped leaves on very dark, almost black, stems which twine clockwise up any support.

POISONOUS BERRIES

Black Bryony Leaves

 

bulrush

Bulrush - Reedmace (Typha Latifolia)

Flowers: June - August, dark brown tall sausage-shaped spadix or flowering head of tiny closely packed individual flowers surrounded by slender hairs; female flowers, which produce seeds, are towards the bottom of the spadix with the male flowers towards the top.

Seeds: the seed heads begin to break up in autumn producing a mass of downy seeds which are dispersed by the wind.

Leaves: long, linear leaves 8 - 20 mm wide.

Height: 1.5 - 2.5 m.

Can be seen in the pond.

Bulrush seeds

Broad-leaved Dock

Dock - Broad-leaved Dock/Bitter Dock/Bluntleaf Dock/Dock Leaf/Butter Dock (Rumex obtusifolius)

Flowers: Large clusters of racemes containing green flowers that change to red as they mature. Held on a single stalk that grows above the leaves and blooms from June to September.

Seeds: reddish-brown.

Leaves: very large, 25 cm long, with some of the lower leaves having red stems. The edges of the leaves are slightly "crisped" or wavy.

Height: 100-150 cm.

 

Broad-leaved Dock leaves

Narrow-leaved Dock

Dock - Narrow-leaved Dock/Spinach Dock/Sorrel (Rumex acetosa)

Flowers: Summer from May, whorled spikes of reddish-green flowers, becoming purplish.

Leaves: Lower leaves 7-15 cm long, slightly arrow-shaped at the base, upper leaves frequently become crimson.

Height: 60 cm.

The leaves are eaten by the larvae of several species of butterfly and moth including the blood-vein moth.


Narrow-leaved Dock leaves
Ribwort Plantain close-up

Plantain - Ribwort Plantain (Plantago lanceolata)

Flowers: April to frosts, 4 mm (calyx green, corolla brownish), long white stamens.

Leaves: basal leaves are lanceolate, spreading or erect, scarcely toothed with 3-5 strong parallel veins.

Height: 10-40 cm.

Ribwort Plantain leaves
Ribwort Plantain
Wild Teasel

Teasel/Wild Teasel (Dipsacus fullonum)

Flowers: A purple, dark pink or lavender ovoid inflorescence of flowers, with a basal whorl of spiny bracts, that forms a head at the top of the stem. The first flowers begin opening in a band around the middle of the flowerhead, and then sequentially toward the top and bottom, forming two bands as the flowering progresses. The brown, dried, head persists with the seeds maturing in mid autumn.

Leaves: Lanceolate, 20–40 cm long, with a row of small spines on the underside of the midrib.

Height: 1-2.5 m with prickly stem.

The seeds are an important winter food resource for birds such as Goldfinch.

dried Wild Teasel
Wild Onion

Wild Onion (Allium vineale nigra)

Flowers: June- August, none to a few 2-5 mm long, six petals varying from pink to red or greenish-white.

Leaves: 2-4 which are slender hollow tubes 15-60 cm long and 2-4 mm thick, waxy textured, with a groove along the side of the leaf facing the stem.

Height: 30-120 cm.

 

Woody Nightshade berries

Woody Nightshade/Bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara)

Flowers: loose clusters of 3–20, 1–1.5 cm across, star-shaped, with five purple petals and yellow stamens and style pointing forward. Photo to be taken.

Fruit: ovoid red berry about 1 cm long, soft and juicy, looks and smells like a tiny tomato. Edible for some birds.

Leaves: 4–12 cm long, roughly arrowhead-shaped, and often lobed at the base.

Height: This perennial vine which scrambles over other plants, capable of reaching a height of 4 m but more often 1–2 m high.

BERRIES AND FOLIAGE POISONOUS FOR HUMANS

Woody Nightshade leaves